Brief History of Cuba

When the conquerors went to Cuba, they brought some products that did not exist in our agriculture so they made aborigines their slaves so that they worked for them. The conquerors had to bring slaves from Africa in order to work the land and being able to develop agriculture in Cuba. These slaves had their own language and religion. 

The conquerors mixed with aborigines, who started to dissapear because of massive extermination, forced labour and new illnesses from Europe, that they were not used to. The aborigines eventually disappeared and a new race was born, “creole”, when conquerors and slaves mixed. However, they were born in Cuba and they started to feel a nationalism for the country. A lot of them wanted to rebel against the Colony.

Big personalities start to emerge, like Felix Varela and José Martí, who started the first war for Cuba’s independence with their ideas. This started in 1868 until 1978, when the conquerors promised to leave Cuba and the Colony. This did not happen, so on the 13th of March, 1878, Antonio Maceo rebelled with the protest of Baracoa. For the next 10 years there were smaller wars until 1895, when the US decides to help Cuba to get out of the Colony, interfering in the war.

In 1902, the US writes an amendment that says that the US can intervene in the political, economical and social issues of Cuba. From 1902 until 1958, Cuba was corrupted politically; there were 5 governors at the same time (Percantia) a governor that lasted for 100 days (Grau), governors that auto proclaimed they were the governors (Bastista). In 1953, a young lawyer with a group of young people decides to assault the Moncada base, the biggest of the whole island. Fidel Castro.

Even thought it was not a big victory, this act served people the function of knowing there was a leader that could go against the dictatorship and tirany at that time (Batista). Fidel was incarcerated and exiled to the East. He spent years in prison until the president of Cuba at the time gives political amnisty. Fidel Castro had met other revolutionary people who shared his ideals, among others, the Argentinian Ché Guevara. They buy a boat and they arrive in Cuba with 82 revolutionaries. Fidel installs himself in the mountains to try and liberate the country from there. His brother, Raúl, and other young people go to the islands in the centre of Cuba. Between those two places, they start committing different acts to start and liberate the country. In 1958, Batista had lost the connection with the North Government, is taken his money away and he goes away from Cuba, allowing the victory of the new government of Cuba. 

In 1959, Cuba is a small island in the middle of the Caribbean who had broken any relations with the US and it was alone, in a crisis by the dictator. Cuba asks for international help and the Sovietic Union is the one who answers. The URSS sends a boat with men to work in Cuba as well as petrol. This makes Cuba to start following the ideas of the Russian comunism. During those years, they did negotiations with the Russians (chocolate in exchange of petrol). In 1989, when the Berlin Wall falls and the communist current is no longer in full force, Cuba is left alone again and in a crisis that was called “special period”. The Cuban government had to take measures to recover its economy. The most importante one was tourism, without forgetting public health, public education, technology or researches, which were the ones developed with the revolution.

Nowadays Cuba is developing biotechnology and construction material, while keeping its principal industries like rum, tobacco, etc. Diplomatic relationships with other countries are also helping in recovering: Canada, Spain, Italy, Japan, France, Brasil, Venezuela o China.